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Leak Testing Primer
Leak Testing Glossary
 

 
  Inspection Penetrant
Glossary 
 
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

AQUEOUS DEVELOPER (also called Wet Developer)
A mixture of developing powder and water that is used to draw the penetrant indications to the surface.  See Choosing Developers

BACKGROUND
The environment against which an indication must be evaluated. It may be the natural surface of the part.

BLACK LIGHT
Light in the near ultraviolet range, just short of visible light. Fluorescent penetrants absorb this ultraviolet radiation and emit light in the visible region. The darker the surroundings the brighter this emitted light appears to be. Extended exposure to black light can be harmful unless protective eyewear is used.    See Black Lights

BLOTTING
The action of the developer in "drawing out" the penetrant from a surface discontinuity causing maximum bleed-out for increased contrast and sensitivity.

CAPILLARY ACTION
The tendency of certain liquids to travel, climb or draw into tight crack-like interface areas due to such properties as surface tension, wetting, cohesion, adhesion and viscosity.

DEFECT
A discontinuity whose size, shape, orientation, location or properties make it detrimental to the useful service of the part in which it occurs or which exceeds the accept/reject criteria for the given design.

DEVELOPER
Developers are used to enhance the visibility of small amounts of penetrant bleeding from small discontinuities. Developers draw or absorb penetrant materials from a surface discontinuity to allow the penetrant to be visible under natural or black light. See Choose the Developer

DISCONTINUITY
Any interruption in the normal physical structure or configuration of a part, such as crack, laps, seams, inclusions or porosity. A discontinuity may or may not affect the usefulness of a part.

DWELL TIME
The time in which a penetrant or developer is in contact with the surface of the part. Drain time is considered to be part of the dwell time.

EMULSIFIER
An emulsifier (sometimes called removers)  is a surfactant used with certain types of penetrants to make oil in the penetrant water dispersible and therefore water washable.   When a penetrant system is used with an emulsifier it is possible to use the emulsifier to control the sensitivity of the pentrant to find small flaws as well as shallow wide defects. See
Lipophilic and Hydrophilic

FLASH POINT
The minimum temperature at which a flammable-vapor mixture exists at the surface of a liquid.

FLAW
An imperfection in an item or material which may or may not be harmful. If it is harmful, it is a defect.

FLUORESCENT PENETRANTS
Fluorescent penetrants require the surrounding area to be darkened and can be seen only with the aid of a black light.  Because of the special requirements of fluorescent penetrants, they are chosen less often for outside and portable applications.  They are available in a variety of sensitivity levels.  See
Fluorescent Penetrants

HYDROPHILIC EMULSIFIER
Emulsifiers (sometimes called removers) are used with certain types of penetrants to make oil in the penetrant water dispersible and therefore water washable.  Hydrophilic emulsifiers are the most commonly used emulsifer - used only with non-waterwashable penetrants. See
Hydrophilic Emulsifiers

INDICATION
The presence of penetrant on a surface that may or may not show the location of a discontinuity.

INSPECTION PENETRANT
A nondestructive tool used to find defects.  Penetrants highlight flaws and leaks that are open to the surface and are too small to see by normal visual inspection.   Penetrants show the presence, location, nature and size of defects.  See
Choose the Penetrant and How to use Penetrants

LIPOPHILIC EMULSIFIER
Lipophilic emulsifiers are used with certain types of penetrants to make oil in the penetrant water dispersible and therefore water washable.  Lipophilic emulsifiers are oil based and are used undiluted.  They are faster than hydrophilic emulsifiers, but are not as flexible and do not always give as sensitive results as do hydrophilic.   Disposal is often more difficult.  AGC lipophilic emulsifiers are less volatile and easier to dispose of than others on the market.  They can be used with any non water-washable penetrant. See
Lipophilic Emulsifiers

PENETRANT
See Inspection Penetrants

POST-EMULSIFICATION PENETRANT
A type of penetrant containing no emulsifier but which is cleaned from a surface with water after applying an emulsifier as a separate step. Often abbreviated as P.E.  See Post Emulsification Penetrant Test.

QUALIFIED PRODUCTS LIST (QPL)
The US Government tests and approves inspection penetrants and publishes a Qualified Products List.  At present this is SAE AMS 2644C

SOLVENT REMOVABLE
A penetrant removal technique which is used with visible or fluorescent penetrants which are not water washable.  It is most often used with portable kits, in aerosol form.   It is one of the easiest removal methods to use.

VISIBLE PENETRANT
A visible penetrant produces a red indication which is easily visible in bright light.   It is often used outside with portable kits.  The main disadvantage of visible penetrants is that they can only be used in one sensitivity.  Their use is limited to less critical applications.  See
Visible Penetrants

WET DEVELOPER (also called Aqueous Developer)
A mixture of developing powder and water that is used to draw the penetrant indications to the surface.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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